Doughty's tally midway through the first period opened the scoring.
He later helped out on Mike Richards' power-play goal late in the middle frame, which broke a 1-1 tie.
Jonathan Quick made 19 saves for the Kings, who are seeded fourth in the Western Conference and won for the fourth time in six contests.
They trail Pacific Division-leading Anaheim by seven points.
Ryan Getzlaf tallied a shorthanded goal and Viktor Fasth stopped 16-of-18 shots for the second-seeded Ducks.