Pole-sitter Busch grabbed the lead from Martin Truex Jr. with less than 20 laps remaining and finished 0.5 seconds in front of him, notching his second Sprint Cup win of the season and 26th of his career.
Busch also won Friday's 300-mile Nationwide Series at the Texas track.
Truex, meanwhile, collected his sixth second-place finish since recording his last Sprint Cup win in June 2007 at Dover.
Joey Logano rounded out the Top 5 after starting from the rear of the field due to a failed pre-race inspection.
Penske Racing teammate and ninth-place finisher Brad Keselowski also flunked the inspection.