The Knicks had their 13-game winning streak come to an end.
Robinson scored 35 points and made five 3-pointers while Jimmy Butler added 22 points and 14 rebounds for the Bulls.
Chicago became the second team in NBA history to end two winning streaks of at least 13 games in the same season. The Bulls snapped Chicago's 27-game streak, the second longest ever in the league, on March 27.
Phoenix also ended two long winning streaks during the 1990-91 season.
Carmelo Anthony scored 36 points for the Knicks, the sixth straight game he has produced at least that many. J.R. Smith added 28 points and seized 14 rebounds.
Chicago rallied from a 15-point deficit in the third period and missed a chance to win in regulation when Luol Deng could not make a jumper in the final second.