Turley was being treated for liver cancer when he died Saturday, his son, Terry, told The Baltimore Sun.
Turley was nicknamed "Bullet Bob" for his fastball, which he parlayed into 101 career wins and 1,265 strikeouts over a dozen seasons in the American League. The New York Times said equipment used in the days before portable radar guns measured his fastball in the 94-98 mph range.
Turley played for Yankees Manager Casey Stengel and teammates such as Mickey Mantle, Roger Maris, Elston Howard and Yogi Berra. He was a member of a pitching staff that included Don Larsen and Whitey Ford.
Turley spent eight years with the Yankees and won the 1958 Cy Young Award and the World Series MVP award in the same year.
After his playing career ended in 1963, he went on to a successful career in the insurance and financial services industry, the Times said.