The announcement came after the USTA reached a five-year agreement with the ATP World Tour and WTA.
The USTA said it will increase base prize money for the 2013 Open by $4.1 million above the previously announced increase of $4 million, bringing the total to $33.6 million.
The prize total for the 2012 U.S. Open was $25.5 million.
The tennis organization said starting the U.S. Open will conclude on the second Sunday of the two-week event with the men's singles championship in 2015. The men's semifinals will be held on Friday to allow for a day of rest.
The women's singles championship will be played on Saturday, rather than Sunday as is the case this year and next.
"We welcome the commitment the USTA has made concerning player prize money at the U.S. Open through 2017," said Brad Drewett, ATP executive chairman and president. "These increases are the largest in the history of the sport, representing a significant step forward in truly recognizing the input the players have in the success of the U.S. Open."
The 2013 U.S. Open will be held Aug. 26-Sept. 9.