Volosozhar and Trankov scored 225.71 points Friday to beat second-place Aliona Savachenko and Robin Szolkowy of Germany by nearly 20 points.
The pair has won the European championship twice and appear on track to be among the favorites at next year's Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia's RIA Novosti news agency said.
"This means we can fight for gold in Sochi," Trankov said. "Get the gold medal back for Russia."
Russia was a dominant power in pairs skating from 1965-1990 but has not won the world championship since 2005. Russia failed to win a medal in the event at the 2010 Olympics in Canada.