Chalmers tied a Miami franchise record with the long-range performance, in which he drained 10-of-13 from beyond the arc to tie Brian Shaw's 1993 mark.
The Heat also got 20 points, seven assists and five rebounds from LeBron James in snapping a two-game losing streak.
The Kings, meanwhile, fell for the fourth straight time despite 34 points and five assists from Isaiah Thomas.
Sacramento center DeMarcus Cousins was held to 11 points, eight boards and four assists in the loss.
Biologists detail four new deep-sea 'killer sponges'
Pregnant Mila Kunis wins 'Best Villain' at MTV Movie Awards