Henley, who entered the final round in a tie with fellow rookie Scott Langley, ended at 24-under-par 256 -- the best 72-hole mark ever turned in a first-year player.
The mark smashed the tournament scoring record at Waialae Country Club in Hawaii by four strokes.
Making only his third career PGA Tour start, the Macon, Ga., native's stellar effort also equaled the third-lowest tourney score overall in tour history.
Finishing alone in second place at minus-21 was Tim Clark, who birdied the final four holes to match Henley with a 63.
Langley, meanwhile, stumbled to an even-par 70 in the final round, finishing in third at 17-under 263 along with Charles Howell III (66).
Sharing fifth place one shot further back were Matt Kuchar (65), Chris Kirk (66) and Brian Stuard (65).