Harden, who finished 29 points, worked in tandem with Jeremy Lin, who supplied 20 and five assists for the Rockets, who posted their fourth straight win and ninth in 11 contests.
The score was tied 78-78 after three quarters, but Harden connected on two 3-pointers to spark Rockets over the final 6 minutes.
Kyrie Irving kept Cleveland in the game by netting 16 of his 30 points in the final frame, but it wasn't enough for the Cavaliers, who lost for the fourth time in five contests.
Irving also contributed six assists and four steals, but committed eight turnovers.
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