Peterson's performance gave him 1,898 rushing yards for the season, although his streak of eight straight games with 100 or more yards was snapped.
Christian Ponder went 16-of-30 through the air for 174 yards and a touchdown for Minnesota (9-6), which won its third consecutive game and currently holds an NFC wild card spot.
The Vikings will close out their season next week against Green Bay.
Matt Schaub was held to 178 passing yards on 18-of-32 efficiency for the AFC South champion Texans (12-3).
Andre Johnson led the Houston receiving corps with seven grabs for 97 yards.