Anna Sidorova won it with a shot in the extra end after Scotland's Eve Muirhead tied the score on the final stone of regular time.
The Russians had to overcome some ragged throws early in the contest, Russia's RIA Novosti news agency said. Sidorova, the Russian skip, made a clutch double takeout in the fifth end to keep her side in contention.
"We've proven that we're a good team and we're one of the best teams out here," said Russia coach Thomas Lips.
Russia last won the finals in 2006. Scotland fell for the ninth time in 11 appearances in the finals.
The men's title was contested later Saturday between Scandinavian neighbors Norway and Sweden.