Schaub went 21-of-35 through the air for 207 yards for the Texans (11-1), who clinched a playoff spot.
Houston's defense came up with three interceptions and recovered three Titans fumbles while Arian Foster scored en route to 38 yards on 14 carries for the Texans.
Lestar Jean added a touchdown on a 54-yard touchdown reception for the winners.
Jake Locker went 21-for-45 for 309 yards passing, but threw three interceptions for Tennessee (4-8), which fell for the fourth time in five outings.
Notable deaths of 2014 [PHOTOS]
LeBron James reveals his new Nike shoes