Gould's last-second boot came after Jay Cutler guided the Bears down the field in nine plays, completing 6-of-7 passes on the drive for 52 yards to set up the winning score.
Cutler overcame a poor first half to finish the game with a 19-for-28 passing efficiency for 186 yards, a touchdown and an interception, while Matt Forte picked up 70 yards with a TD on 15 carries.
Brandon Marshall made nine grabs for 98 yards as the Bears (6-1) won their fifth straight.
Chicago had grabbed a 20-19 advantage late in the game when Tim Jennings intercepted a Cam Newton pass and ran it in for the score.
Newton (20-for-39, 314 yards, two interceptions) then put the Panthers into field goal range and Justin Medlock kicked a 43-yarder off the right upright for a 22-20 Carolina lead with 2:27 left.