Kahne, who stands fifth in the Sprint Cup Chase for the Championship with five races remaining, turned in a qualifying lap of 191.360. Every driver who attempted to qualify broke the old track record of 180.856, which had stood for seven years.
Mark Martin and Clint Bowyer had the second and third fastest lap. Kahne won his fourth pole of the season and the 26th of his Sprint Cup career.
In addition to new pavement, the 1.5-mile track has steeper banking in the turns.
"The track is great," Kahne said. "I think they did a really nice job. It's going to be one of the best racetracks we go to."
Martin qualified at 191.238 mph while Bowyer was clocked at 191.130.
"That's an extremely fast lap for a mile-and-a-half track," Bowyer said. "That will get your attention."
Points leader Brad Keselowski qualified 25th. He has a seven-point lead over Johnson and a 15-point cushion over Hamlin.