Webber sped around the 3.49-mile course at the Korean International Circuit in 1 minute, 37.242 seconds, 0.74 seconds ahead of his Red Bull teammate and defending Korean Grand Prix champion.
"It was a reasonable lap, and we did it when it counted," Webber said. "It's been a tricky last few events for me but really happy to start on pole."
Asia continued to be kind to Vettel, who won the grand prix events in Singapore and Japan and starts in the second slot on Sunday.
Notable deaths of 2014 [PHOTOS]
Michael Sam cut from the Dallas Cowboys