Biffle, one of the 12 drivers who are battling for the series championship during the 10 races that make up the Sprint Cup playoffs, turned in a lap of 193.708 miles per hour at Charlotte Motor Speedway.
The old record had been 193.216, established by Elliott Sadler seven years ago.
It is the third pole of the season for Biffle and the 12th of his Sprint Cup career. He is currently ninth in the point standings, 49 points behind leader Brad Keselowski.
Mark Martin, who has driven a limited schedule for Michael Waltrip Racing this year, was second fastest in qualifying at 193.361. He will start in his 850th Sprint Cup race.
Kenseth was last week's winner at Talladega, Ala.
Qualifying came following an announcement by Dale Earnhardt Jr. that he will miss at least two races after suffering a concussion in the Talladega race. An Earnhardt has started every Sprint Cup race conducted since 1979.
The race will be held Saturday night.