With the steady rain expected to last late into the night and with both teams having an open date on Monday, club officials chose to call the game off only a little more than an hour after its originally scheduled starting time.
Monday was to have been the only off day for both teams for the rest of the season.
The crucial contest will be the last meeting of the regular campaign between the teams battling for the American League Central title. Chicago has a one-game lead over Detroit with 20 games left.
Detroit will play a three-game weekend series in Cleveland before returning to Chicago for next Monday's game, which will begin at 2 p.m. ET. The Tigers will then return home to face Oakland.
Chicago will visit Minnesota over the weekend for three games and then, after hosting the Tigers on Monday, will move on to Kansas City.
Justin Verlander (13-8) had been scheduled to start for the Tigers. Chris Sale (6-6) had been listed as the starting pitcher for the White Sox.