Schaub, who missed the Texans' final eight games in 2011 with a Lisfranc injury to his right foot, went 3-for-6 through the air with an interception.
Jonathan Grimes' three-yard TD run in the third quarter helped ice the game for the Texans.
Cam Newton started behind center for the Panthers and completed 2-of-6 passes for 17 yards.
Running back Jonathan Stewart celebrated a new five-year contract extension with one reception for 13 yards.
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