The 114 points tied the most an American women's team has ever scored in an Olympic game, matching the number produced against Spain in a contest in Barcelona 20 years ago.
The United States finished play in Group A, having run its Olympic winning streak to 38. Team USA is seeking its fifth consecutive gold medal.
China was within three after one period thanks to a barrage of long distance shooting, but the Americans held the Chinese to 20 points over the next two quarters.
Angel McCoughtry added 16 points for the United States, which shot 63 percent from the field and won the rebounding battle 46-29.
The Americans will now meet Canada in Tuesday's quarterfinals. The Canadians finished fourth in Group B record after losing to Australia 72-63 in its final group game.
Group B was won by France, which completed an unbeaten trip through the preliminary round with a 65-54 decision over Russia.
The Australians will be in the same half of the draw as the United States for the knockout round of the tournament, which means they would meet in the semifinals. Those two countries have played in the gold medal game each of the last three Olympics with the Americans winning by 22, 11 and 27 points.