Verlander (11-5), making his second start since being shelled in the All-Star Game, shut down the White Sox after giving up a two-run homer to Alejandro De Aza in the third.
The Tigers rallied to take the lead in the bottom of the third and, after Verlander protected the advantage, Jose Valverde came on in the ninth to grab his 18th save.
After the Tigers had fallen behind in the top half of the third, Jhonny Peralta opened the bottom of the inning with a double. Two outs later Quintin Berry was hit by a pitch and Miguel Cabrera singled in Peralta with the first run of the inning.
Jake Peavy (7-7) gave up four runs on eight hits over seven innings to take the loss. Peavy has won just one of his last nine starts.