Voeckler pedaled the mountainous 194.5 kilometers from Macon to Bellegarde-sur- Valserine in 4 hours, 46 minutes and 26 seconds. It was his third career Tour stage win.
Voeckler outpaced Italian Michele Scarponi and German Jens Voigt.
Wiggins did well enough to maintain his 1:53 edge over defending champion Cadel Evans to hang onto the yellow jersey for another day.
Christopher Froome, Vincenzo Nibali and Denis Menchov round out the Top 5 in the overall standings.
Stage 11 Thursday will cover 148 kilometers from Albertville to La Toussuire-Les Sybelles.