A report issued by the Houston Police Department said Peterson was taken into custody early Saturday and charged with "resisting arrest/search unclassified" after allegedly refusing to leave a bar at closing time, the Houston Chronicle reported.
Police said Peterson pushed an off-duty Houston police officer who was working as security at the establishment after being asked repeatedly to leave and later resisted arrest.
The Vikings star posted bond at the city jail and was released later Saturday, the Chronicle said.
"We are aware of the situation. We will withhold further comment until more information is known," the team said in a statement.
The five-time all-pro running back, a native of Palestine, Texas, is recovering from reconstructive knee surgery performed in December following a season in which he gained 970 yards and scored 13 touchdowns for Minnesota.
Over his five-year career, Peterson has racked up 6,752 rushing yards on 1,406 carries, scoring 64 times on the ground.