De Villota, 32, the daughter of former British Formula One Series champion Emilio de Villota, has lost an eye and was hospitalized at Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, the Marussia racing team said in a statement.
De Villota was participating in a training session -- driving the team's MR-01 car for the first time -- when she collided with a support truck, suffering serious injuries to her head and face.
Team principal John Booth said the Spanish driver underwent extensive surgery to battle life-threatening injuries.
"We are grateful for the medical attention that Maria has been receiving, and her family would like to thank the neurological and plastics surgical teams," Booth said. "However it is with great sadness that I must report that, due to the injuries she sustained, Maria has lost her right eye."
Booth said De Villota's family was with her at the hospital.