Keselowski crashed his primary vehicle during Friday's practice session at the 1.5-mile racetrack but nonetheless piloted his second-string car to a 4.4-second victory over Kasey Kahne.
The triumph gave the Penske driver a leg up in qualifications for this year's Chase for the Sprint Cup championship.
Kahne bounced back from a pit stop issue early in the race to claim second place, while Denny Hamlin came in third.
Defending Kentucky champ Kyle Busch touched the wall midway through the race and wound up finishing 10th.
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