Rosol, No. 100 in the world, played without fear against Nadal, who had been in the finals at Wimbledon five of the last six years and in the finals of the last five Grand Slam events overall.
Rosol fired off three aces in a love game that capped a 6-7 (9-11), 6-4, 6-4, 3-6, 6-4 victory. Rosol had 22 aces among his 65 winners. After missing opportunities to take the first set, Rosol grabbed early breaks in the second, third and fifth sets. He was able to hold serve to take those sets.
Nadal evened the match in the fourth set, but officials opted to stop play and close the roof at Center Court. Even after the 40-minute delay, Rosol never wilted and was especially sharp in the last set when he had 20 winners against just two unforced errors.
Fourth-seeded Andy Murray defeated Ivo Karlovic 7-5, 6-7 (5-7), 6-2, 7-6 (7-4) behind a consistent serving game. Murray did have his serve broken on his first service game but didn't see another break point the rest of the way.
He ended up winning 78 percent of the points on serve.
No. 7 David Ferrer, coming off a grass-court title last week, didn't lose his serve during a 7-6 (7-1), 6-2, 6-4 win over Kenny De Schepper. Ferrer had just 10 unforced errors against 30 winners.
He'll next go against 30th-seeded Andy Roddick, who was a 6-3, 7-6 (7-1), 6-3 victor over Bjorn Phau.
Fifth-seeded Jo-Wilfried Tsonga handled Guillermo Garcia-Lopez 6-7 (3-7), 6-4, 6-1, 6-3; ninth-seeded Juan Martin del Potra got past Go Soeda 6-2, 6-3, 1-6, 6-4 and No. 10-seeded Mardy Fish survived a 4-hour, 13-minute challenge from Britain's James Ward for a 6-3, 5-7, 6-4, 6-7 (3-7), 6-3 win.
But Xavier Malisse ousted 13th-seeded Gilles Simon 6-4, 6-4, 7-6 (8-6) and Benoit Paire eliminated No. 22 Alexandr Dolgopolov.
No. 16th-seeded Marin Cilic had little trouble in a 7-6 (7-4), 6-2, 6-1 win over Lukasz Kubot. One of the games he lost in the second set was a break but he didn't have to deal with another break point in the match.
Wild card David Goffin, Lukas Lacko, Brian Baker, Marcos Baghdatis and Andrea Falla earned spots in the third round as unseeded players.