"With more than 55 years of knowledge and experience in our game, Frank Robinson continues to be an extraordinary ambassador for baseball," MLB Commissioner Bud Selig said.
"This position will allow Frank to represent the national pastime to the next generation and guide the development of inner-city kids on and off the field, a cause that has always been close to his heart."
Robinson, 76, had a 21-year playing career, batting .294 with 586 home runs and 2,943 hits for Cincinnati, Baltimore, the Los Angeles Dodgers, the California Angels and Cleveland. He is the only player to be named MVP in both leagues and was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 1982.
He then became the first African-American manager, guiding Cleveland, San Francisco, Baltimore and Montreal/Washington.
Most recently, he was the special assistant to the commissioner.
In his new role, he will guide the management of MLB's Urban Youth Academies in Compton, Houston and Puerto Rico, as well as the development of future sites in New Orleans, Hialeah (Fla.) and Philadelphia.