Robertson, who took over the ninth-inning role after perennial all-star Mariano Rivera was lost for the season with a torn knee ligament, has posted a 2.51 ERA over 14 1/3 innings in 2012.
After blowing his first attempt, Robertson later notched his initial save and last appeared in Friday's 6-2 New York win over Seattle before going on the 15-day disabled list.
The Yankees are now likely to turn to Rafael Soriano as their closer.
New York recalled pitcher Cody Eppley from Class AAA Scranton/Wilkes-Barre to take Robertson's spot on the roster.
Celebrity Families of 2014 [PHOTOS]