The Nationals failed to take full advantage of their 14 hits, but won their third in a row and moved into a tie with the Los Angeles Dodgers and St. Louis for the most wins (17) in the National League.
Philadelphia reliever Michael Schwimer (0-1), the Phillies' sixth pitcher of the game, retired the first two men he faced in the 11th.
Lombardozzi started the game-winning surge with a single and both Bryce Harper and Jayson Werth drew walks to load the bases. Ramos came on to bat for pitcher Ryan Perry and drove a 1-2 pitch to center for the winning hit.
Perry (1-0) retired the side in order in the top of the 11th to get the victory.
All of Philadelphia's runs came on homers -- a two-run shot by Hunter Pence in the fourth and a solo affair from Carlos Ruiz in the fifth.
Philadelphia had a 3-1 lead going into the sixth, but Jesus Flores produced a sacrifice fly in that inning for Washington and tied the game with an RBI double in the eighth.