Doughty's ninth goal of the season staked Los Angeles to a 3-1 lead and secured the Kings' second consecutive victory.
Jonathan Quick made 22 saves and the Kings further frustrated the Wings by killing all four of Detroit's power plays.
Jimmy Howard's return to the Detroit goal after missing three games with a strained groin was not enough to save the Red Wings from their fourth loss in five games. Howard was touched for four goals on 26 shots.
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