Gooden scored 15 points, had 13 assists and hauled down 10 rebounds in Milwaukee's fourth consecutive victory.
Ersan Ilyasova led the Bucks in scoring with 22 points and Mike Dunleavy added 21 off the bench.
Gooden's other career triple-double came against Cleveland April 9, 2011 -- and that had been the last one for any of the Bucks until Wednesday.
Milwaukee led by six heading into the fourth period, but built that advantage to 18 with less than 4 minutes to play.
Kyrie Irving scored 28 points for Cleveland, which has lost two in a row.