Former Philadelphia teammate Mike Richards assisted on both of Carter's tallies as the Kings improved to 72 points on the season, moving them to within three of Phoenix atop the Pacific Division.
Richards finished with three assists overall, while Dustin Brown and Anze Kopitar also scored for Los Angeles.
Jonathan Quick earned the victory with 29 saves.
Devante Smith-Pelly and Sheldon Brookbank found the net for the Ducks.
Anaheim's Jonas Hiller yielded three goals on 19 shots.