Barrichello, 39, said he had signed a one-year contract with KV Racing Technology and will become a teammate of Tony Kanaan and E.J. Viso.
"It is something very new to me," Barrichello said. "With all my experience, I will start as a rookie. But I think I will get better as the year progresses."
Barrichello has driven on the F1 circuit for 19 years. He has appeared in 322 races with 11 victories.
Kanaan, who won the IndyCar Series championship in 2004, joined the KV Racing Technology last year.