Brodeur stopped 30 shots, including 15 in the final period as the Devils continued their hot streak with a fifth straight win.
The veteran goalie's whitewash, however, appeared to be over with 3.5 seconds left in game when Artem Anisimov found the net for an apparent equalizer.
But it was waved off when the officials ruled New York's Marian Gaborik had caused goalie interference when he went crashing into Brodeur.
Rangers Coach John Tortorella vociferously argued Gaborik had been shoved into the goalie by a Devils defender, but to no avail.
David Clarkson got the game's only goal for New Jersey.
The Rangers' Henrik Lundqvist saw a personal three-game winning streak come to a halt after stopping 21-of-22 shots.