The reigning MVP of the NBA missed Chicago's previous game with a toe injury but he played through discomfort Friday while making 9-of-21 shots from the field.
Chicago owned a 52-33 halftime lead, but the Celtics came back within a point 2 minutes deep in the fourth period. Rose then scored four straight to ignite a 10-3 run that pushed the Bulls to victory.
Chicago, which has won an NBA-high 11 games this season, has captured four in a row.
Ray Allen led Boston with 16. The Celtics have dropped three straight.