Robinson, a 33-year-old defender for Houston, spent 11 seasons in the MLS, winning two championships with San Jose and two with the Dynamo.
"I am excited. This move brings a whole new set of challenges for me," Robinson said in a statement. "I care a lot about this organization and I want to see it succeed. I am now in a position to help the organization grow from a different standpoint."
Dynamo President Chris Canetti said he is "extremely pleased" to have Robinson continue with the club.
"He was an integral part of our team's success and he will bring a lot of value to what we are trying to do as a club moving forward," he said without providing specifics of Robinson's new role.