The Blackhawks ended a three-game skid and handed the Blue Jackets their 13th loss in 15 games this season.
Toews beat Steve Mason with a wrist shot with 2:51 to go in the first to put the Blackhawks in front for good.
Marian Hossa delivered his eighth goal of the season just 32 seconds into the third, with Toews assisting, to give the Blackhawks a 6-1 lead.
Grant Clitsome had two goals for Columbus, which lost its third in a row.
Corey Crawford made 27 saves for Chicago. Mason surrendered six goals on 36 shots.
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