Trailing 17-7 at halftime, Dalton connected with Jerome Simpson on a 15-yard scoring strike in the third quarter and then found Andre Caldwell with a 5-yarder early in the fourth, putting the Bengals ahead to stay.
Dalton finished with 217 yards on 22-of-39 efficiency for Cincinnati (6-2), which notched a fifth straight win for the first time in 13 years.
The Bengals held the Titans to just 95 yards of total offense in the second half.
Matt Hasselbeck went 24-of-41 for 272 yards and two touchdowns for Tennessee (4-4).
Chris Johnson added 110 all-purpose yards as the Titans lost for the third time in four games.