The U.S. team totaled 179.411 points, outpacing Russia, the defending champion, which took the 2011 silver with 175.329 points. China was third at 172.820.
Maroney scored 16.033 on the vault to lead the Americans to the highest score in the discipline. Wieber's 14.766 in the floor exercise was the team-best for the United States, which has the highest team score in that event.
The gymnastics world championships continue through Sunday. The men's team title, won by China in 2010, is to be decided Wednesday with individual events contested the rest of the week.