Foster led the NFL in rushing last season with 1,616 yards, 149 more than Kansas City's Jamaal Charles. Foster also scored 18 touchdowns and produced 2,220 yards from scrimmage.
He missed this season's opener against Indianapolis, a game Houston won 34-7. Derrick Ward started in Foster's place Sunday, although Ben Tate wound up leading the Texans in rushing with 116 yards and a touchdown.
"It felt good being back out there with the guys," Foster said. "You miss that camaraderie and that competition and just the whole atmosphere of football when you're away from it."
Houston will travel to Miami Sunday looking for its second 2-0 start in as many years. The Texans, who entered the NFL in 2002, are also hoping for their first playoff appearance in franchise history.