Newman was timed in 135.232 mph in his qualifying lap and will be on the front row with his Stewart-Haas Racing teammate Tony Stewart.
The previous record at New Hampshire was 133.572 mph, set last September by Brad Keselowski.
Newman has won 47 poles in his Sprint Cup career, moving him into 10th place on the all-time list. He had not won a pole since May 2010 at Charlotte Motor Speedway.
"It's been such a long drought for me to win a pole," Newman said. "I'm really excited about this weekend. This has been a track that's been really good for me."
David Reutimann qualified third, followed by Kurt Busch and Keselowski. The Top 10 was rounded out by Jeff Burton, Jeff Gordon, Juan Pablo Montoya, Paul Menard and Kasey Kahne.
Points leader Kyle Busch will start 19th.