Kyle Singler contributed 13 points and grabbed six rebounds for the Blue Devils (32-4), who advance to the West Regional to face Arizona. The Wildcats earned a meeting with Duke by defeating Texas 70-69.
Duke also benefited from 11 points each from Ryan Kelly and Kyrie Irving as Blue Devils Coach Mike Krzyzewski racked up his 900th career win.
No. 8 seed Michigan (21-14), which trailed virtually the entire game, staged a rally at the end but came up short.
Darius Morris netted 16 points and Tim Hardaway Jr. added 15 for the Wolverines.