Langenbrunner played for Dallas when the Stars won the Stanley Cup in 1999. After playing seven years with Dallas, he was sent to the Devils in 2002.
Joe Nieuwendyk, who was also part of that trade nine years ago, is now general manager with Dallas.
"We are very excited to add Jamie to our team," Nieuwendyk said. "He fits the mold of the type of players we want on this roster -- strong work ethic, tough, passionate and hard to play against.
"All of our fans got to see what kind of a player Jamie is when he broke into the league in the '90s and was part of our Stanley Cup team in 1999. We are thrilled to be able to bring him back to Dallas."
Langenbrunner, 35, had been the New Jersey captain since December 2007. New Jersey is off to its worst start in a quarter of a century and the move likely signaled the start of a rebuilding process.
Dallas began Friday's action in first place in the Pacific Division.