In the highlight attraction to date in the college basketball season, Irving scored more than 20 points for the first time in his career. He made 8-of-12 shots from the field and 13-of-16 from the foul line.
Duke (7-0) won for the 81st straight time at home against a team from outside the Atlantic Coast Conference.
It was the last of the 11 games in the ACC/Big Ten Challenge and for the second year in a row the Big Ten emerged with a 6-5 record. The series of games was instituted in 1999 and the ACC had the most victories in each of the first 10 years.
The Big Ten had a 4-2 lead coming into Wednesday's action and picked up victories from Wisconsin over North Carolina State and Purdue over Virginia Tech.
Duke held as much as a 12-point lead over the Spartans in the second half but did not wrap things up until Nolan Smith hit two free throws with 9 seconds to play for a seven-point cushion.
Smith scored 17 points for the Blue Devils and Kyle Singler had 15. The Spartans (5-2) were paced by Korie Lucious with 20 points off the bench.
Duke has an 11-1 record in the ACC/Big Ten Challenge.