The rejection means a state suit filed by the players can continue.
A federal appeals court dismissed a federal court challenge to the suspensions, but allowed a parallel state court suit to continue.
The NFL had asked the Supreme Court to throw out the state suit.
CNN said the NFL cited the National Labor Relations Act, arguing its collective bargaining agreement with the players union keeps its drug policy from being challenged in state courts. The players argued the NFL violated state labor laws.
Celebrity Families of 2014 [PHOTOS]