Kenton County, Ky., jail officials said Phillips was clocked driving 72 mph in a 35-mph zone in Park Hills, Ky., south of Cincinnati, and was booked into the Kenton County Jail, The Cincinnati Enquirer reported.
Phillips was released after posting a $25 bond.
The infielder told the newspaper Saturday he was with his mother at the time and was rushing to get to a restaurant for a late meal with his parents when he was pulled over.
"I was just trying to hurry up and just exchange cars so we all could ride together," Phillips said. "My parents tried to surprise me because it's the weekend and the week that's coming up is my birthday."
Police said no alcohol was involved, the Enquirer reported.