Busch, who has won twice at this track, posted a speed of 189.984 mph for his one qualifying lap. It was the 12th pole of his Sprint Cup career.
Showers fell at the conclusion of qualifying and wiped out the practice session scheduled for late in the day.
Jamie McMurray will start alongside Busch, having missed the pole by .04 of a second.
Four-time defending series champion Jimmie Johnson qualified third, followed by Kasey Kahne and Jeff Burton.
Mark Martin won the spring race in Michigan last year and Brian Vickers captured the event held in August.
Rounding out the top 10 qualifiers were Jeff Gordon, Denny Hamlin, Ryan Newman, David Reutimann and Juan Pablo Montoya. Hamlin won last week's race at Pocono.
Points leader Kevin Harvick will start 31st.