Jackson scored on runs of 3 and 7 yards, Ryan Fitzpatrick hit Terrell Owens on a 51-yard pass play for a touchdown and Rian Lindell kicked a 56-yard field goal for Buffalo (4-7), all in the final quarter.
Fitzpatrick, who also ran 31 yards for a score, connected on 17-of-26 passes for 246 yards, helping the Bills end a three-game slide. Buffalo won for the first time under Perry Fewell, the interim coach who replaced the fired Dick Jauron.
After Lindell sent the Bills ahead to stay with the longest field goal of his career, Buffalo intercepted Miami quarterback Chad Henne on each of the Dolphins' final three drives.
Henne passed 4 yards to Brian Hartline for a touchdown and ended up 17-of-31 passing for 175 yards.
Ricky Williams rushed for 115 yards, including a 1-yard touchdown, for Miami.(5-6).