Goligoski, a second-year player who was off to a great start with six goals and eight assists, underwent an MRI exam Monday, head coach Dan Bylsma told the Penguins' official Web site.
With the loss of Goligoski, Pittsburgh is now missing all four of its top defensemen: Sergei Gonchar (broken left wrist), Kris Letang (shoulder contusion), Brooks Orpik (lower body) and Goligoski.
The Web site said Penguins forwards Tyler Kennedy (undisclosed), Chris Kunitz (lower body) and Maxime Talbot (torn labrum) are also out of action.
The Penguins also recalled defenseman Nate Guenin from their farm team in Wilkes-Barre, Pa., the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette reported.
Guenin, who attended high school in Aliquippa, Pa., would join Ryan Malone and Bill Thomas as the only Pittsburgh-area natives to appear for the Penguins should he get into Monday's contest against Anaheim, the newspaper said.