The move comes in the wake of several changes within the USOC and follows the unexpected rejection of Chicago's bid to host the 2016 Summer Olympics.
Jim Scherr resigned as the organization's chief executive officer in March and Stephanie Streeter took over as acting CEO. Streeter has said she would not seek the job on a permanent basis.
The independent committee Tagliabue will chair will look into the size, structure and operations of the USOC board and, if needed, recommend changes.
"The board of the USOC felt the time was right for an independent assessment of our governance structure, and we are extremely pleased that someone with Paul's sport, business and leadership credentials is willing to take on this role," said Larry Probst, the USOC chairman.
Tagliabue, 68, was commissioner of the NFL from 1989-2006. He is now chairman of the board of Georgetown University.
"It is a privilege to serve the USOC and its stakeholders," Tagliabue said. "I've been fortunate to have had many special experiences in sports. I'm sure that the opportunity to collaborate in this vitally important project with others committed to the Olympic tradition will be very positive and constructive."