Trailing 2-0 to start the third period, the Penguins rallied to win their seventh straight game. The defending Stanley Cup champions have nine victories in their 10 outings this season.
Steve Reinprecht scored both goals for Florida less than 3 minutes apart in the opening period.
Tomas Vokoun took a shutout into the third, but Crosby scored 2:14 into the stanza with Gregory Campbell in the penalty box for the rare call of head-butting. Crosby tied it with 3:19 to play in regulation with a shorthanded goal.
Crosby's shootout score came in the second round and it stood up while Brent Johnson saved attempts by Reinprecht, Ville Koistinen and Nathan Horton. Crosby played in the 300th game of his NHL career. He has six goals this season after scoring 33 in 2008-09.
Florida, which has just two wins this season, lost its second straight.